YFULL is a interpretation service for NGS tests on the Y chromosome. They use these results to develop a high resolution experimental tree that includes age estimates for branches. The methodology behind the estimates was published in Adamov et al (2015), Defining a New Rate Constant for Y-Chromosome SNPs based on Full Sequencing Data. In summary the method works by determining how much of the combBED region is sequenced and counting the number of SNPs on each private branch. These are combined with a constant mutation rate of 0.82 ∙ -10 per year per bp to determine a median age.

Most of this data has been available for sometime from my Combo Matrix minus the coverage lengths. While waiting on new tests to arrive, I’ve had some time to complete the pieces needed to apply the approached to arrive at Adamov-based age estimates for R-FGC11134 and subclades. The list below is based on 150 BAMs from FGC11134 and below men. R-Y160007 is not included since I don’t have access to the necessary raw data. The numbers in the 95% confidence intervals are the most likely years the most recent common ancestor of these branches would have lived. The bold rows contain the current terminal positions of Irish Type 2 K(e)anes.

## FGC11134 Age Estimates

**R-A155 approx. 1068 AD (n: 4 CI 95: 292 AD – 1844 AD) [162084]**

**R-S1121 approx. 541 AD (n: 59 CI 95: 309 BC – 1391 AD) [89382]**

**R-A159 approx. 741 AD (n: 16 CI 95: 30 AD – 1453 AD) [333894]**

**R-FGC29071 approx. 1727 AD (n: 2 CI 95: 1535 AD – 1919 AD) [B5163]**

### Meaning for Irish Type 2 K(e)anes

It is becoming quite obvious that there is not a common source to explain the Ó Catháin surname under CTS4466. The STR distance between the current crop of known samples is not because they shared a common ancient lineage. Instead there are multiple insertions from different Irish Type 2 lineages into the Ó Catháin pedigree at very different time scales. The explanations for most of these will likely be classic non-paternal event sources such as adoption, surname change for inheritance, or classic cases of infidelity. As the group grows it may become possible to speculate on this more.